1. What is the role of fifth generation computers?
The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project (FGCS) was an initiative by Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in 1982, to create a “fifth generation computer” which was supposed to perform much calculation using massive parallel processing. It was to be the end result of a massive government/industry research project in Japan during the 1980s. It aimed to create an “epoch-making computer” with supercomputer-like performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence.
The term fifth generation was intended to convey the system as being a leap beyond existing machines. Computers using vacuum tubes were called the first generation; transistors and diodes, the second; integrated circuits, the third; and those using microprocessors, the fourth. Whereas previous computer generations had focused on increasing the number of logic elements in a single CPU, the fifth generation, it was widely believed at the time, would instead turn to massive numbers of CPUs for added performance.
The project was to create the computer over a ten year period, after which it was considered ended and investment in a new, Sixth Generation project, began. Opinions about its outcome are divided: Either it was a failure, or it was ahead of its time.
2.What is Arithmetic Logic Unit? How it is helpful in CPU?
an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs and graphics processing units (GPUs) accommodate very powerful and very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs.
Mathematician John von Neumann proposed the ALU concept in 1945, when he wrote a report on the foundations for a new computer called the EDVAC. Research into ALUs remains an important part of computer science, falling under Arithmetic and logic structures in the ACM Computing Classification System.
An ALU must process numbers using the same format as the rest of the digital circuit. The format of modern processors is almost always the two’s complement binary number representation. Early computers used a wide variety of number systems, including one’s complement, sign-magnitude format, and even true decimal systems, with ten tubes per digit.
ALUs for each one of these numeric systems had different designs, and that influenced the current preference for two’s complement, as this is the representation that makes it easier for the ALUs to calculate additions and subtractions.
The two’s-complement number system allows for subtraction to be accomplished by adding the negative of a number in a very simple way which negates the need for specialised circuits to do subtraction.
3.Perform the following arithmetic operations in binary
a. 11011 + 11110
b. 1110 – 1100
c. 1011 * 110
d. 1111 / 111
4.Briefly explain Embedded System.
An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.
Embedded systems are controlled by one or more main processing cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP). The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task, which may require very powerful processors. For example, air traffic control systems may usefully be viewed as embedded, even though they involve mainframe computers and dedicated regional and national networks between airports and radar sites. (Each radar probably includes one or more embedded systems of its own.)
On a continuum from “general purpose” to “embedded”, large application systems will have subcomponents at most points even if the system as a whole is “designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions”, and is thus appropriate to call “embedded”.
5.Distinguish Application Software and System Software
Application software, also known as software application, application or app, is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. Typical examples are word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications.
Application software should be contrasted with system software (infrastructure) or middleware (computer services/ processes integrators), which is involved in integrating a computer’s various capabilities, but typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. A simple, if imperfect analogy in the world of hardware would be the relationship of an electric light bulb (an application) to an electric power generation plant (a system).
In computer science, an application is a computer program designed to help people perform a certain type of work. An application thus differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a programming language (with which computer programs are created). Depending on the work for which it was designed, an application can manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. Some application packages offer considerable computing power by focusing on a single task, such as word processing; others, called integrated software, offer somewhat less power but include several applications. User-written software tailors systems to meet the user’s specific needs. User-written software include spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, graphics and animation scripts.
6.Briefly explain the the advantages and disadvantages of laptop computers
Portability: The number one reason why people buy laptops is because they can take it anywhere. If you constantly have to go on trips, a laptop will be very useful. Your own laptop will have all your e-mail, software’s, presentations, sales material etc. You can store all of this and much more information that you constantly need, on your laptop without any problems.
Size and Weight: Laptops are compact. The single laptop contains, your monitor, CPU, speakers, keyboard, mouse and everything else a normal computer contains. If you do not have place at home or have little space on your office desk. If your situation is such that you do not have space to accommodate another computer, then it would be good to go in for laptop.
Un-interrupted power supply: It can be charged with battery and it will stay on so long as the battery has charge. So, if you act wisely, and keep your laptop charged, you will never have the problem on not being able to work on your laptop because the lights have gone.
Technology: Because a laptop is pretty compact, some of the recent technology that’s been developed for desktops has yet to be made into thinner and smaller forms and successfully fitted into laptops. So laptops are always a step behind desktops when it comes to capability and efficiency. However, the laptop market is growing and this situation is fast changing.
Comfort: You will have to get used to using a mouse pad instead of a mouse. Your keyboard and your monitor are connected, so when you type your face will close to the monitor. You will not get “sub-woofer” quality sound, unless you externally connect your laptop to a sub-woofer.
Upgrading : If you’re planning on adding stuff onto your computer, get yourself a desktop and not a laptop. Upgrading a laptop is not impossible. But, anybody who knows anything about computers will tell you that it’s impractical to purchase a laptop with the intention of upgrading it. It’s often impossible to add stuff like RAM and hard drives without sending the entire piece back to the manufacturer. Even if you do decide to upgrade, you are limited in the selection of extra equipment; most laptops require you to install parts manufactured by the same company.
7 .Briefly explain the input and output units with real-time examples.
Any device designed to assist in the entry of data into computer is know as input device.
Input devices convert data from any convenient external format into binary codes that a computer can store and manipulate internally.
Some of the most common, most popularly used devices are
3. Light pen
6. Touch screen
Mouse: This input device is categorized as pointing device because it is used to point and select an option on the monitor. A pointer on screen follows the movements of the mouse. A mouse can be classified in the basic of the number of buttons it has, the technology it use and the kind of interface it share with the computer. A mouse can be classified as a Mechanical mouse and optical mouse, on the basic of the technology it uses.
Keyboard: This is the most widely-used input devices. Generally a keyboard has 105 keys. It features 12 key arranged at the top of the keyboard and the larger backspace.
Light pen: This is a pen-like device, has a photo detector at its tip. The detector can detect changes in the brightness of the screen. The light pen is connected to the computer by a cable. It is useful for drawing graphics in computer aided design software
Scanners: They can see images or printed text and translate them into binary code. Most scanners collect data from a page by recording. Which is made up of thousands of tiny cells, called Charge Couple Devices (CCD)?
Touch screen: Here user needs only to touch the appropriate point on the display to point out an item to the computer. This is again a pointing device.
Any peripheral device that converts the stored binary coded data into convenient external form as text and pictures are know as Output devices.
Monitor: This is most common output devices .we can see words, number and graphics on monitor
Compact disk: A CD can also be input device
Printer: A Printer prints whatever is on the monitor onto paper.
Speaker: This gives sound output from computer.
8.How will you convert fractional decimal value to binary numbers?
To convert fractional decimal number. Multiply the decimal fraction repeatedly by 2.If the result is greater than or equal to 1,we add a 1 to answer.If the result is less than 1 ,we add a 0 to our answer.
.375 *2 = 0 Integer Fraction
.375*2= 0.750=0.0 0 .750
0.750*2=1.500 1 .500
1.500*2=1.000 1 .000 Answer: 0.0 1 1
9. Write short notes on new features of Windows XP.
New Windows engine: WindowsXP uses robust and reliable kernel introduced in windows 200.This kernel have fully procted memory module, security and hardware abstraction layer that protect key system component from poorly written program.
Robust system proction tools: windows xp monitors system files with outdated or incorrect version. Windows XP also allows program just installed to use its own DLL files. Additional protection like system Restore utility has been introduced.
. Device driver rollback: windows XP warns if you try to install unsigned driver that has not been certified as compatibles with windows XP.
. Security features: Password-protected logins and ability to set permission in files and folder make it possible to share a PC with others. New Welcome screen make it easy-to –use administrative tools make windows xp easily to set up and share PC.
10. Explain the types of computer programming languages with their merits and demerits.
Computer programming languages are classified into two types.Low level language and High Level Language. Low Level Language is a machine oriented and machine-dependent language,where each instruction corresponds to a machine instruction.These machine language are directly used by computer.
Hight Level Language is machine-independent language.This requires the support of translator(Complier/Interpreter) and is self documenting.HLL is easy to read,write,learn and understand
Since HLL source program must be translates first to the machine language,this is done by Translators(Complier,Interpreter )
Advantage of LLL are Processing speed is high because it is one-to-one language.Translation of program in not require.It occupies less memory space
In the case of HLL, it is easy to read ,write, understand.Easy to update,easy to remember,easy to construat the complaex logic instruction and above all machine-independent .Example:C# COBOL ALGOL
LLL instruction are difficult to read,write and understand.it is difficukt to update,remember.Programming methodology varies from machines to machines Only specialist can able to operate these language.Examples for LLL are machine Language and Assemblt Language.